American National Standards Institute
(Allied Stone Industries)
The Allied Stone Industries is made up of stone quarriers, fabricators, and the suppliers of natural building materials and related machinery and tools.
ASTM International, formerly known as American Society for Testing and Materials, is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services.
In stone carving, to cut away material, leaving parts in relief.
A non-reflective surface finish. An abrasive finish may be defined by the grit size of the abrasive.
A measure of the wearing performance of stone for floors, stair treads, and other areas subjected to abrasion by foot traffic. Refer to ASTM C241 and C1353.
The amount of water absorbed by a stone, expressed as a percentage by weight. Refer to ASTM C97.
A solid stone “springer” at the lowest point of an arch or vault.
In masonry, any ingredient added to mortar or concrete to speed the curing process.
A treatment applied to the face of a stone to achieve a texture or finish that is distressed.
Most acidic chemical treatments are effective only when applied to calcareous stone varieties.
Used in reference to stone veneer, secured and supported by adhesion of an approved bonding material over an approved backing.
A material other than water, aggregates, lime or cement, added to concrete or mortar at the time of mixing. Admixtures are typically added to function as water repellents, coloring agents or to adjust the curing rate of the concrete or mortar.
A volcanic, quartz based stone containing a variety of colored aggregates and pumice in a quartz matrix. Quarried in Mexico.
A variegated, translucent, cryptocrystalline variety of quartz showing colored bands or other markings (clouded, mosslike, etc.).
A manmade product composed of crushed stone combined with resin. See also engineered stone and cultured stone.
A small mass of rock, having occurred naturally (as in sand or gravel) or by means of manufacture (as in a crushed aggregate product), used either in a loose, noncohesive state, or as an ingredient in mortar or concrete products.
A fine grained and translucent variety of gypsum, generally white in color. Commonly used in decorative applications as it is can be cut and carved easily with a knife or saw. Term is often incorrectly applied to fine grained marble.
Pertains to a highly basic, as opposed to acidic, substance; for example, hydrogen or carbonate of sodium or potassium.
The safe load that can be resisted by a stone anchor, determined by dividing the ultimate capacity by the factor of safety.
Temperature of the surrounding environment.
A corrosion resistant metal fastener used for securing dimension stone to a structure or adjacent stone units. Anchor types for stonework include those made of flat stock (straps, dovetails) and round stock (rod cramp, rod anchor, eyebolt and dowel).
The means by which slabs are secured to a self supporting structure.
The angle a normal pile of loose material makes to the horizontal. Used as an indicator of flowability; the steeper the slope, the more sluggish the flow.
Having properties, either visual or mechanical, that differ based on the direction in which they are measured. All stones are anisotropic to some degree, but the sedimentary stones typically have the greatest degree of anisotropy.
A dark-colored igneous rock consisting mostly or entirely of calcic plagioclase.
A finish that replicates rustic or distressed textures. Produced through mechanical or chemical means to simulate the naturally occurring effects of the aging process.
Uppermost stone in a gable, pediment, vault or dome.
A trim piece under a projecting stone top, stool, etc.
The curved or pointed construction over a doorway or opening. Arch shapes range from flat to semicircular or semielliptical to acutely pointed.
The beam or lowest division of the entablature in the classical orders, spanning from column to column. The decorated surrounds of a window or door at the head and jamb.
A weakly metamorphosed compact rock composed mainly of clay and shale. Used locally as building stone, although rarely produced commercially.
A feldspar-rich sandstone containing 10% or more clastic grains of feldspar. Also called “arkosic sandstone” and “feldspathic sandstone.”
A slight, although measurable, chamfer where two surfaces meet
A manmade product attempting to replicate the look of natural stone. This term is actually a misnomer, as it includes an obvious contradiction of terms. Stone is naturally occurring earth material. See engineered stone and cultured marble.
A stone façade of generally square or rectangular units having sawed or dressed beds. There are three generally recognized distinctions:
1. random ashlar: ashlar set with stones of varying length and height so that neither vertical nor horizontal joints are continuous.
2. coursed ashlar: Ashlar set to form continuous horizontal joints.
3. stacked ashlar: Ashlar set to form continuous vertical joints.
Hand-dressed stone surface showing fineto-course, generally linear toolmarks made by axe, pick or bush hammer.