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CNC Machine
Definition:

A computer numeric controlled, multiaxis, vertical spindle machine designed to use rotating milling and profiling tools to produce shapes, cut outs, holes, finishes, and various other operations in stone that are otherwise accomplished by more labor intensive techniques.


Calcarenite
Definition:

Limestone composed predominantly of cemented sand-size grains of the mineral calcite (more rarely aragonite), usually as fragments of shells or other skeletal structures. Some calcarenites contain oolites (small, spherical grains of calcium carbonate that resemble fish eggs) and may be termed oolitic limestone. Calcareous sandstones, in which the calcium carbonate is present chiefly as bonding material, are not included in this category.


Calcareous
Definition:

Refers to substances containing or composed of calcium carbonate.


Calcite
Definition:

A common rock forming mineral. The chief constituent of limestone and most marble.


Calcite Limestone
Definition:

Limestone containing not more than five percent of magnesium carbonate.


Calcite Marble
Definition:

A crystalline variety of limestone containing not more than 5% of magnesium carbonate.


Calcite Streaks
Definition:

White or milky streaks occurring in stone. It is a joint plane usually wider than a glass seam which has been recemented by deposition of calcite in the crack. It is structurally sound.


Calibration
Definition:

Within the stone industry, the process in which stone slabs or units are abraded to achieve a more precise thickness tolerance (±1mm) than what would normally be produced by standard sawing techniques. The term is most frequently used in the production of stone tile, which must have limited thickness variation to allow installation using thinset adhesive.
The term gauge is essentially synonymous, although is more commonly used to describe less precise techniques.


Canopy
Definition:

A sheltering roof, as over a niche or a doorway.


Cantera
Definition:

A sheltering roof, as over a niche or a doorway.


Cantera
Definition:

A volcanic, quartz based stone with qualities similar to adoquin, but not as dense. 
Quarried in Mexico.


Cantilever
Definition:

A structural member supported at only one end. The term is loosely used, although not technically correct, to describe an overhang.


Cap or Capital
Definition:

 The culminating stone at the top of a column or pilaster, often richly carved.

 


Carbonic Acid
Definition:

A weak acid with the formula H2CO3. It is also a name sometimes given to solutions of carbon dioxide in water.


Carve
Definition:

To shape a solid material such as stone by precisely cutting it with a tool.


Caulk
Definition:

To seal a joint with an elastomeric, adhesive compound.


Cavity Vent
Definition:

An opening in joints of stone veneer to allow the passage of air and moisture from inside the wall cavity to the exterior. The vents may be weep holes, plastic tubing, or wicks.


Cavity Wall
Definition:

A multi-wythe masonry wall built with a continuous cavity between the outer masonry, typically brick or stone, and the inner wall, typically concrete block or frame construction. The cavity is vented to reduce the amount of condensate that will collect in the space, and is wept to provide an evacuation path for any moisture that collects within the space.


Cement Putty or Butter
Definition:

See neat cement.


Chamfer
Definition:

A flat treatment, produced by either grinding or cutting, to eliminate the sharp edge where two surfaces meet.


Chat Sawn Finish
Definition:

A rough, gang-sawn finish produced by sawing with coarse abrasives.


Chert
Definition:

Hard, dense sedimentary rock composed of interlocking quartz crystals and possibly amorphous silica (opal). Synonymous with “flint”.


Chiseled Edge
Definition:

The rustic, aged appearance produced by mechanically chipping the stone edge.


Cladding
Definition:

Exterior veneer stone covering. Non-load bearing stone veneer used as the facing material in exterior wall construction.


Clast
Definition:

An individual grain or constituent of a sedimentary rock.


Cleavage
Definition:

The ability of a rock mass to break along natural surfaces; a surface of natural parting.


Cleavage Plane
Definition:

Plane or planes along which a stone may likely break or delaminate.


Cleft Finish
Definition:

Rough-surfaced stones such as slates or sandstones that are cleaved or separated along a natural seam are referred to as natural cleft.


Closer (British)
Definition:

1. In equidimensional stone masonry, a stone trimmed to non-uniform length to close a course next to a quoin or other end unit.
2. A stone course running from one window sill to another (a variety of string course).


Cobblestone
Definition:

A dimension stone large enough for use in paving. A term commonly used to describe paving blocks, usually granite, and generally cut or cleft to approximately rectangular prisms.


Colonnade
Definition:

A range of columns supporting an entablature or one side of a roof.


Color Enhancer/Sealer
Definition:

A product that is designed to enrich, brighten and enhance the color and/or character of the stone. Stone enhancers are more frequently used on honed or textured surfaces where the stone color and/or character are muted by the finish. Enhancers are also used to match the color of an exposed slab edge to that of a resin treated slab face.


Column
Definition:

A vertical support, usually consisting of a base, shaft, and capital.


Compressive Strength (ASTM C170)
Definition:

A measure of the resistance of the stone to crushing loads, generally tested per ASTM C170.


Conglomerate
Definition:

A coarse-grained sedimentary rock, with clast grains larger than 2 mm.


Construction (cold) Joint
Definition:

The joint between two separate placements of concrete.


Contractor, stone
Definition:

Company or person that erects and installs fabricated dimension stone.


Control Joint
Definition:

A partial depth joint that is either formed or sawed in concrete to control the location and frequency of shrinkage cracking.


Conveyor
Definition:

A general term, often used interchangeably with belt conveyor, but applicable to all conveyor types including pans, screws, buckets, pneumatics, radial stackers and others.


Coping
Definition:

A stone used as a cap on freestanding walls.


Coquina
Definition:

Limestone composed predominantly of shells or fragments of shells loosely cemented by calcite. Coquina is coarse textured and has a high porosity. The term is applied principally to a very porous rock quarried in Florida.


Corbel
Definition:

A projection or bracket extending from the face of a wall to support an element above it.


Core
Definition:

The cylindrical mass of stone that results from drilling a hole in stone with a hollow core bit, often times is used as a sampling technique in quarries.


Core bit
Definition:

A hollow cylindrical drilling tool that bores a hole by abrading only the perimeter of the core, utilizing less abrasive than a bit that would abrade the entire diameter of the hole.


Core sampling
Definition:

A drilling process by which a section of rock is taken for the purposes of testing and evaluation.


Cornerstone
Definition:

A ceremonial stone at an exterior corner of a building, generally engraved with pertinent information about the building’s construction, including the date.
Also used to describe a masonry stone unit erected at an exterior corner from which lines can be strung to control the linear position of subsequent stone units.

 


Cornice
Definition:

Any projecting ornamental molding that crowns or finishes the top of a building or wall.


Course
Definition:

A horizontal range of stone units the length of a wall.


Coursed Veneer
Definition:

A veneer achieved by using stones of the same or approximately the same height with stones that achieve that height in multiple courses. Some horizontal joints run the entire length of the veneered area. Vertical joints are constantly broken, so that no two joints will be over one another.


Cove Base
Definition:

A concave stone molding. See base.


Cove Molding
Definition:

A concave molding, typically found at the sloped or arched junction of a wall and ceiling.


Crack
Definition:

A man-made break, split, fracture, separation, cleavage, or elongated narrow opening, visible without magnification to the human eye and extending from the surface into the stone, which must extend through the grain or matrix of the stone.


Cramp
Definition:

A U-shaped metal anchor used to hold two adjacent units of stone together.


Cross-bedding
Definition:

The arrangement of laminations of strata transverse or oblique to the main planes of stratification.


Cross-cut
Definition:

The process of cutting the initial block of stone parallel to the natural bedding plane. The effect is a mottled or cloudlike appearance. Synonymous with fleuri cut, although the term cross cut is most often used when describing travertine materials.


Crowfoot
Definition:

See stylolite.

 


Cubic Stone
Definition:

Dimension units more than 2 inches thick e.g., cubic limestone, cubic marble


Cultured Marble
Definition:

An artificial, manmade product somewhat resembling marble.


Cup Wheel
Definition:

Shop tool used to remove large amounts of material from the edge of a stone. These can be used to aid in the creation of edge profiles and larger radii.


Curbing
Definition:

Stone, generally in cubic forms, bordering streets, walks, etc. Sometimes spelled “kerbing.”


Cure Time
Definition:

The time required for a chemical reaction (polymerization or hydration) to be completed in a sealant, concrete, mortar, or other construction element until the finished visual and performance attributes are developed.


Curtain Wall
Definition:

A non-bearing exterior stone cladding supported by an anchoring system. Used to protect a building from the elements.


Cushion
Definition:

A resilient pad placed between adjoining stone units and other materials to absorb or distribute loads.


Cut Stone
Definition:

Currently, stone that has been fabricated to a finished size and configuration and ready to be installed. Historically, the term “cut stone” was used to describe limestone products.


Cycle Time
Definition:

Time for a machine to complete one cycle, i.e., load, haul, dump, return.