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Fabricated
Definition:

Used in reference to dimension stone, it means having undergone cutting, machining, or other processes in order to refine the product for its intended application manufactured and ready for installation.


Face
Definition:

The exposed surface of stone on a structure.


Fascia
Definition:

Any flat horizontal member, generally between moldings, most frequently used when referring to elements of a classical architecture cornice.


Feed Rate
Definition:

The rate of speed with which routing, cutting, or sawing blades and bits travel as they are cutting the material.


Fieldstone
Definition:

A naturally occurring, irregularly shaped stone, as found in a field, used for various building applications without further fabrication. Field stone are commonly used in freestanding walls, veneers, walkways, and garden bed linings.


Filler Strip
Definition:

See backer rod.


Filling
Definition:

A trade expression used to indicate the filling of natural voids in stone units with cements or synthetic resins and similar materials.


Fines
Definition:

The powder, dust, and silt- or sand-sized material resulting from processing, usually crushing, stone.


Finish
Definition:

Process applied to the exposed surfaces of dimension stone during fabrication to achieve the desired aesthetic and/or performance characteristics of the stone. The finish may be applied early or late in the fabrication sequence.


Fissure
Definition:

An industry term describing any naturally occurring separation along crystalline boundaries visible in exposed surface of the stone. Note that the industry use of this term is different than the scientific, geological use of this term.


Flagstone
Definition:

Thin slabs of stone with irregular shapes and split edges used for paving surfaces such as walks, driveways, and patios. The term is used to describe any stone used in this pattern, although is most often used to describe sedimentary stones that have been cleft into their final thickness.

 


Flamed Finish
Definition:

See Thermal Finish.


Fleuri
Definition:

The mottled random effect obtained when slabs of certain stone varieties are sawn parallel to their natural bedding planes. See also Cross Cut.


Fleuri Cut
Definition:

To cut slabs of quarried stone parallel to the natural bedding plane.


Flexural Strength
Definition:

A bending strength test, normally performed per the ASTM C880 test method, in which a sample of stone of the project thickness is supported by two support rods creating a span of at least 10 times the thickness, and loaded to failure by two rods positioned at quarter points of the span. The results are reported as the stress experienced by the stone sample at the time of specimen failure, and expressed as a force per unit area (lbs/in² or pascals). See also modulus of rupture.

 


Flooring
Definition:

Stone used as an interior pedestrian walking surface.


Flute
Definition:

One of series of shallow, concave, parallel grooves running vertically on the shaft of a column, pilaster, or other surface.


Fracture
Definition:

Any break or separation of fabric within the stone as a result of mechanical stress.


Freestone
Definition:

A stone that may be cut freely in any direction without fracture or splitting. Also called “universal stone.” See isotropic.


Frieze
Definition:

1. A decorated band along the upper part of an interior wall.
2. The middle member of the entablature, located above the architrave and below the cornice.

 


Front-end Loader
Definition:

A heavy equipment earth moving machine with a hydraulically powered bucket on two booms (or arms) extending in front of the tractor portion of the machine. The bucket may be replaced with other devices to accomplish specific tasks in stone quarrying operations.