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Saddles
Definition:

See thresholds.


Sample
Definition:

An actual piece of dimension stone in a small size used to demonstrate the general color, markings, and finish of a given variety of stone.


Sandblasted
Definition:

A matte-textured surface finish produced by small particles (“sand”) striking the stone surface at high velocities.


Sandstone
Definition:

Sandstones are sedimentary rocks usually composed of quartz cemented with silica, iron oxide or calcium carbonate. Sandstones range from very soft and friable to very hard and durable, depending on the depth at which it was buried and the nature of the cement. Generally, the most durable sandstones are cemented with silica.Sandstone has a wide range of colors or textures. See quartz based stone.


Sawed Edge
Definition:

A clean-cut edge generally achieved by cutting with a diamond blade.


Sawed Face
Definition:

A finish obtained from the process used in the cutting of the blocks, slabs, or other units of building stone without further embellishment. It varies in texture from smooth to rough, and is typically named for the type of material used in sawing, e.g. diamond sawn, sand sawn, chat sawn, ­and shot sawn.


Sawyer
Definition:

One who operates a saw.


Scabbing
Definition:

See dressing.


Schist
Definition:

A loose term applying to foliated metamorphic (recrystallized) rock characterized by thin foliae that are composed predominately of minerals of thin platy or prismatic habits and whose long dimensions are oriented in approximately parallel positions along the planes of foliation.
Because of this foliated structure, schists split readily along these planes and so have a pronounced rock cleavage.
The more common schists are composed of mica-like minerals (such as chlorite) and generally contain subordinate quartz and/or feldspar of a comparatively finegrained texture; all gradations exist between schist and gneiss (coarsely foliated feldspathic rocks).


Scotia
Definition:

A deep concave molding.


Screed
Definition:

A flat board or other straight piece used to level freshly placed concrete, mortar, or sand by sliding it over prepositioned guides that determine the height of the concrete or mortar.


Sculpture
Definition:

A three-dimensional art form cut or chiseled from a monolithic block of stone.


Sealant
Definition:

An elastic adhesive compound used to seal stone veneer joints while still allowing differential movement between the stone units.


Sealer
Definition:

A protective coating or treatment which prevents or retards foreign liquid or matter from penetrating the stone by closing the pores in the surface.


Sealing
Definition:

The process of applying a sealer.


Seam Setter
Definition:

A tool designed to pull two pieces of stone together and make the surfaces flat with each other. The tools are made with suction cups and attached with a set of steel glides. The tool will allow the installer to apply adhesive, pull the stone together, shim if necessary to make flat, while the tool is holding the pieces together until the adhesive dries.


Sedimentary
Definition:

Rocks formed by deposition of particles, or “sediments” laid down in successive strata and cemented together by another agent. The materials of which they are formed are derived from preexisting rocks or the skeletal remains of sea creatures.


Serpentine
Definition:

A common hydrous magnesium silicate rock-forming mineral; generally dark green in color with markings of white, light green, or black. Rocks composed predominantly of such minerals are correctly called “serpentinites”, and are commercially sold as a marble because they can be polished. The definition of serpentine is given in ASTM C119 under the marble group.


Setter
Definition:

A field mechanic who specializes in the installation of dimension stone.


Setting
Definition:

The installation of dimension stone units.


Setting Space
Definition:

The distance from the finished face of a stone unit to the face of the backup material. (Note: in some regions, the term is used to describe the distance between the back of the stone and the face of the backup material. See also “cavity”)


Shale
Definition:

A fine grained sedimentary stone formed by the compaction of clay, silt, or mud.


Shear
Definition:

A force that causes, or attempts to cause, internal adjacent planes of material to slide along one another.


Shim
Definition:

A piece of plastic or other non-corrosive, non-staining material used to temporarily or permanently adjust the position of a stone unit.


Shop Drawing
Definition:

A detailed fabrication and installation drawing showing layout, joinery, dimensions, materials, finishes, methods of anchorage, and/or any other information pertinent to the fabrication or installation of the stone material.


Shop Ticket
Definition:

A document used by a stone fabricator describing the fabrication details of an individual piece of dimension stone, most commonly employing graphics in addition to text, and possibly including production and/or quality control monitoring. Also referred to as a “cutting” or “cut” ticket.


Shot Sawed
Definition:

Description of a finish resulting from using steel shot abrasive in the gang sawing process without further embellishment. This surface will normally have random linear markings for a rough surface texture.


Silica
Definition:

An oxide of silicon with the chemical formula SiO2, found abundantly in nature as sand quarts, or other rock components, The dry cutting or grinding of silica will produce silica dust, which when airborne in particles of respirable size, are a well known health hazard to those exposed to it without adequate PPE.


Siliceous
Definition:

A rock bearing abundant silica.


Sill
Definition:

The bottom horizontal part of a window or opening in a structure.


Siltstone
Definition:

A fine-grained, non-carbonate clastic rock composed of detrital grains of quartz and silicate minerals of silt size. Siltstones are rarely marketed as such but commonly are considered as fine-grained quartz-based stones (sandstones). Siltstone is texturally transitional between quartz-based stones and shales (mudstones). Many bluestones and siliceous flagstones fall within this category. The term is included in these definitions chiefly to explain the relationship of some siliceous flagstones to the quartz-based stone category.


Simulated Stone
Definition:

An artificial manmade product that attempts to resemble natural stone.


Slab
Definition:

A flat “sheet-like” section of natural stone sawn to a prescribed thickness, with length and width determined by the size of the quarry block from which it was sawed.
Slabs will generally receive a face finish and further fabrication processes to become usable dimension stone products.


Slate
Definition:

A very fine grained metamorphic rock derived from sedimentary shale rock, with excellent parallel cleavage, and entirely independent of original bedding, slate may be split easily into relatively thin slabs. See definition of slate in ASTM C119.


Sling
Definition:

A type of strap, typically in the form of a “loop”, made of high-density cloth and rated for the intended load, which is wrapped around an object that is being lifted.


Slip Joint
Definition:

A connection which permits vertical or horizontal movement of a stone unit relative to the adjacent unit.


Slip Sill
Definition:

A stone sill set between jambs. (compare lug sill).


Slurry
Definition:

A suspension of insoluble particles in a liquid.


Smooth Finish
Definition:

A finish of minimum textural quality, presenting the least interruption of surface. Smooth finish may be applied to any surface, flat or molded. It is produced by a variety of machines.


Snapped Edge
Definition:

See Guillotine.


Soapstone
Definition:

A talc-rich stone with a “soapy” feel, used for hearths, tabletops, chemical-resistant laboratory tops, stove facings, and cladding; known for its heat, chemical, and stain resistant properties.


Soffit
Definition:

The underside of any architectural element, such as an arch, beam, lintel, or balcony.


Soundness
Definition:

A property of stone used to describe relative freedom from cracks, faults, voids, and similar imperfections found in untreated stone. One of the characteristics encountered in fabrication.


Spall
Definition:

A chip or splinter separated from the main mass of a stone. Also known as sprawl.


Spandrel
Definition:

1. The often-decorated triangular area between an arch and a wall, or between two arches.
2. In modern high-rise construction, the panel area between the head of one window and the sill of the one above it. Can be clad in stone, metal, or glass.


Splay
Definition:

A surface that makes an oblique angle with another surface, such as the non-vertical riser face frequently seen on steps.


Split
Definition:

Division of a rock by cleavage.


Split-faced Stone
Definition:

Stone on which the face has been broken to an approximate plane.


Split-stone Finish
Definition:

In building stone, a rough face formed by splitting slabs in a split-face machine. Generally the slabs are sawed parallel to bedding in stratified stone, so that the split face exposes the bedding in natural orientation or overturned, but some stone is sawed perpendicular to bedding and then split with the bedding vertical, either exposed as a cleft surface or vertical.


Spot or Spotting
Definition:

Stone that is cut to one dimension and installed with unbroken vertical and horizontal joints running the entire length and height of the veneered area.


Spreader Bar
Definition:

A beam with two lifting slings or cables, one on each end, intended to spread the lifting points while the bar is hoisted from its center.


Stacked Bond
Definition:

Stone that is cut to one dimension and installed with unbroken vertical and horizontal joints running the entire length and height of the veneered area.


Sticking
Definition:

The butt edge repair of a broken piece of stone, now generally done with dowels, cements, or epoxies. The pieces are “stuck” together; thus “sticking.”


Stone
Definition:

Sometimes synonymous with rock, but more properly applied to individual blocks, masses or fragments taken from their original formation or considered for commercial use. In commercial use, the term stone is more frequently used, while scientifically, geologists and petrographers more frequently use the term rock.


Stool
Definition:

The interior sill of a window.


Stratification
Definition:

The layered structure in sedimentary stone deposits as a result of the deposition of sediments in beds or layers (also “strata” or “lamina”).


String Course
Definition:

A horizontal band of masonry, generally narrower that other courses, extending across the façade of a structure and in some structures encircling such decorative features as pillars or engaged columns.
May be flush or projected, and flat surfaced or decorated. Also called belt course or band course.


Stripping
Definition:

To remove coatings that block a stone’s ability to breathe which may cause spalling (when the stones crack, pop, or shale). Some examples of common coatings are topical acrylic sealers, janitorial waxes, and polyurethanes.


Stylolite
Definition:

In limestone and marble, generally a bedding plane, along with differential solution of the material on each side has caused interpenetration of points, cones, or columns, forming a contact surface that is rough when separated. Also known as crowfoot.


Support
Definition:

An angle, plate or other stones which carry a gravity load.